Various Human Organ Systems and Their Functions

Various Human Organ Systems and Their Functions – Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body. The anatomy of the human body is composed of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. Organ systems are the parts that make up the human body. This system consists of various types of organs, which have specific structures and functions. Organ systems have distinctive structures and functions. Each organ system depends on each other, either directly or indirectly.

List of contents

1. Skeletal System

The human body is supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones connected by tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. This bone is composed of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones located along the axis of the human body. The axial skeleton includes the skull, middle ear bones, hyoid bone, ribs, and spine.

The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones which are appendages that connect the axial skeleton. The appendicular skeleton is located in the upper limbs, lower legs, pelvis, and shoulders. The function of the skeletal system is to move, support and give shape to the body, protect internal organs, and as a place for muscles to attach.

The human skeletal system is a collection of bones that are interconnected with each other to form a movement system. In the locomotor system, the skeleton cannot move alone, but works together with muscles. The cooperation of the two can be known as the musculoskeletal system. Muscles with the help of joints and other supporting structures (ligaments, tendons, fascia and bursae) allow the skeleton to move.

The human skeleton is formed from single or combined bones (such as the skull) supported by other structures such as ligaments, tendons, muscles, and other organs. The average adult human has 206 bones, although this number can vary between individuals. These 206 bones have different structures and functions.

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The human skeleton has various functions, including:

  • Gives body shape;
  • Protects organs and parts/soft tissues of the body;
  • Straighten the body;
  • Place of attachment of skeletal muscles;
  • Passive locomotion;
  • Site of production of red blood cells (hematopoiesis); and
  • Calcium and phosphate reserves.

2. Muscular System

The muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that help with movement, blood flow, and other bodily functions. There are three types of muscles: skeletal muscle which is connected to bones, smooth muscle which is found in the digestive organs, and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart and helps pump blood.

a. Skeletal Muscles/Striated Muscles

Skeletal muscles are muscles that are attached to the skeleton. The fleshy part of our body is the skeletal muscle. These muscles are also called striated muscles, because when viewed from the side, these muscle fibers show a pattern of transverse or striped fibers.

Cross sections of this muscle reveal thousands of muscle fibers. The fibers are arranged in parallel bundles, and are bound to each other by connective tissue through which blood vessels and nerves pass. The size of this muscle is 50 microns in diameter and 2.5 cm in length.

Skeletal muscle contractions are fast, strong, and conscious. Each muscle fiber is wrapped by the endomysium, a collection of fiber bundles is wrapped by the fascia propia/perimysium, while the muscle (meat) is covered by a superfisalis/epimysium fascia membrane. The endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium join to form the tendons that attach muscles to bones.

b. Smooth muscle

Smooth muscle cells have an elongated shape with both ends pointed and the nucleus is located in the middle of the muscle cell. Myofibril fibers in smooth muscle are homogeneous and smaller than striated muscle fibers. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels, walls of the digestive tract, lungs, and ovaries. This muscle is slow to react in receiving stimuli, but is resistant to fatigue, and works under the influence of involuntary nerves.

c. Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle is found only in the walls of the heart. Cardiac muscle structure resembles striated muscle, but the nucleus is located in the center of the cell and has branches. Each branch of the heart muscle contains connective tissue called intercalated discs. The heart muscle works under the influence of involuntary nerves, reacts quickly to stimuli, and is resistant to fatigue.

3. Circulatory System

The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and about 5 liters of blood carried by blood vessels. The circulatory system is supported by the heart, which is only the size of a closed fist. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps more than 5 liters of blood around the body every minute.

The circulatory system has three main functions:

  • Circulates blood throughout the body. Blood provides essential nutrients and oxygen and removes waste and carbon dioxide to be removed from the body. Hormones are transported throughout the body through blood plasma fluids.
  • Protects the body through white blood cells by fighting pathogens (germs) that have entered the body. Platelets function to stop bleeding during wounds and prevent pathogens from entering the body. Blood also carries antibodies that confer specific immunity against pathogens the body has previously been exposed to or has been vaccinated against.
  • Maintain homeostasis (balance of body conditions) in several internal conditions. Blood vessels help maintain a stable body temperature by controlling the flow of blood to the skin’s surface.

There are two types of circulatory systems: an open circulatory system, and a closed circulatory system. the circulatory system, which is also part of the performance of the heart and a network of blood vessels (cardiovascular system) is formed. This system ensures the survival of the organism, is supported by the metabolism of every cell in the body and maintains the chemical and physiological properties of body fluids.

First, the blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. Second, what is transported is the nutrients that come from digestion such as fat, sugar and protein from the digestive tract in the respective tissues to consume, according to their needs, processed or stored.

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